(1)there be 句型
There is going to be a meeting.
There is a book on the table.
(2)here, there, now, then, in, out等副词置于句首时，主谓倒装，但如果主语是人称代词时，主语和谓语语序不倒装，如，
Here comes the bus.
Here he comes.
"What he said meant nothing", said the teacher.
(4)为保持句子平衡，强调表语或状语，使上下文紧密衔接时须完全倒装，如，In front of the house sat a small boy.
(1)so, neither, nor置于句首说明与前者情况一致时，如，
I like swimming, so does my brother.
Only through this method can we win.
Only in this way can we do the work well.
(3)含有否定意义的词置于句首，如，Hardly, scarcely, not, seldom, no sooner, never, little, at no time, in no way, no more等，如，
Never had I heard that.
Little did I know about this.
(4)以often, so +形容词或副词开头的句子，如，
So heavy is the box that he cannot carry it.
(5)用于省略if的虚拟条件句中，将had, were, should提前，如，
Were I you, I wouldn't do that.
Had he come, we would have won.
May you be happy for ever.
What he wants is a piece of paper.
It is believed that he can solve the problem.
I don't know how to solve the problem.
Do you know where he lives?
The problem is who can help me.
This is why I came here.
I have no idea where he went.
I heard the news that he would come.
同位语从句用that引导，常跟在fact, idea, news, promise, thought, message, hope, belief, doubt等词后，that在从句中不作任何成分。
在复合句中，修饰某一名词或代词，或修饰整个主句的从句叫做定语从句，引导定语从句的关系代词有who, whom, whose, which, that, as,和关系副词when, where, why。
a. 先行词有all, everything等不定代词时，如，
Everything (that) he did is wrong.
b. 先行词被all, every, no, some, any, little, much等修饰时，如，
I'll read all the books (that) you lend me.
This is the first letter (that) the boy has written.
d. 先行词被the only, the very, the same, the last修饰时，如
He is the very man (that) I'm looking for.
This is the book about which we have talked a lot.
The book, which he gave me yesterday, is very interesting.
This is the room where I worked.
This is the room which I stayed in.
I remembered the day when we lived there.
I remembered the day that I spent there.
as 可以放于句首，而which 不可以
As you know, he is good at English.
three of them 和three of which
I have a lot of books, three of which are in Russian.
I have a lot of books and three of them are in Russian.
To work hard is necessary for a student.
Both he and I are right.
但并列主语如果指的是同一人，同一事物或同一概念，谓语动词用单数，如, His teacher and friend is a beautiful girl.
(3)、主语是单数时，尽管后面跟有as well as, but ,except, besides, with ,along with, together with, like等，谓语动词仍用单数，如，
The teacher as well as his students is excited.
(4)、某些不定代词，如做主语，谓语动词要用单数，如:Everyone has a book.
(5)、一些只有复数形式的名词，如people, cattle, clothes等作主语时，谓语动词要用复数，如，A lot of people are dancing outside.
Twenty years is not a long time.
(2)、表示总称意义的名词public, police, cattle, clothes等作主语时，谓语动词用复数，如，
People are talking about the accident.
My family is a big one.
My family are watching TV.
用连词or, either……or, neither……nor, whether……or, not only…but also,等连接的并列主语，如果一个是单数，一个是复数，则谓语动词按就近一致原则，与最靠近它的主语一致，如，
Either you or I am mad.