高中英语语法归纳总结分类

英语 2020-07-31 09:25:46

高中英语语法归纳总结分类

高中英语语法涉及到英语题型的各个方面,从不起眼的选择题到失分严重的作文题,都离不开英语语法的作用,下文是有途网小编给大家整理的高中英语语法归纳总结分类,仅供大家参考。

I.要点

按"主语+谓语"这种顺序排列的句子是陈述语序,如果变为"谓语(或谓语的一部分)+主语",就是倒装语序。

1、全部倒装

(1)there be 句型

There is going to be a meeting.

There is a book on the table.

(2)here, there, now, then, in, out等副词置于句首时,主谓倒装,但如果主语是人称代词时,主语和谓语语序不倒装,如,

Here comes the bus.

Here he comes.

(3)直接引语的部分或全部位于句首时,有时也用倒装,如,

"What he said meant nothing", said the teacher.

(4)为保持句子平衡,强调表语或状语,使上下文紧密衔接时须完全倒装,如,In front of the house sat a small boy.

2、部分倒装

(1)so, neither, nor置于句首说明与前者情况一致时,如,

I like swimming, so does my brother.

(2)only +状语放在句首,如,

Only through this method can we win.

Only in this way can we do the work well.

(3)含有否定意义的词置于句首,如,Hardly, scarcely, not, seldom, no sooner, never, little, at no time, in no way, no more等,如,

Never had I heard that.

Little did I know about this.

(4)以often, so +形容词或副词开头的句子,如,

So heavy is the box that he cannot carry it.

(5)用于省略if的虚拟条件句中,将had, were, should提前,如,

Were I you, I wouldn't do that.

Had he come, we would have won.

(6)用于某些表示祝愿的句中,如,

May you be happy for ever.

I.要点

根据从句在句中的句法功能,从句可分为名词性从句、定语从句和状语从句。

1、名词性从句

(1)主语从句

What he wants is a piece of paper.

It is believed that he can solve the problem.

注:主语从句的谓语动词用单数。

(2)宾语从句

I don't know how to solve the problem.

Do you know where he lives?

(3)表语从句

The problem is who can help me.

This is why I came here.

(4)同位语从句

I have no idea where he went.

I heard the news that he would come.

同位语从句用that引导,常跟在fact, idea, news, promise, thought, message, hope, belief, doubt等词后,that在从句中不作任何成分。

2、定语从句

在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词,或修饰整个主句的从句叫做定语从句,引导定语从句的关系代词有who, whom, whose, which, that, as,和关系副词when, where, why。

(1)that指物时一般可与which互换,但在下列情况下,要用that而不用which。

a. 先行词有all, everything等不定代词时,如,

Everything (that) he did is wrong.

b. 先行词被all, every, no, some, any, little, much等修饰时,如,

I'll read all the books (that) you lend me.

c. 先行词被序数词或形容词最高级修饰时,

This is the first letter (that) the boy has written.

d. 先行词被the only, the very, the same, the last修饰时,如

He is the very man (that) I'm looking for.

e. 只用which的情况

在介词后或在非限定性定语从句中

This is the book about which we have talked a lot.

The book, which he gave me yesterday, is very interesting.

f. where和when作关系副词

This is the room where I worked.

This is the room which I stayed in.

I remembered the day when we lived there.

I remembered the day that I spent there.

g. as和which

as 可以放于句首,而which 不可以

As you know, he is good at English.

three of them 和three of which

I have a lot of books, three of which are in Russian.

I have a lot of books and three of them are in Russian.

3、状语从句

在复合句中起状语作用的从句叫做状语从句。状语从句可分为时间状语、地点状语、原因状语、目的状语、结果状语、条件状语、行为方式状语、比较状语、让步状语等多种。

I.要点

谓语受主语支配,须和主语在人称和数上保持一致,这叫做主谓一致,主谓一致包括语法一致、意义上一致和就近一致。

1、语法上一致

(1)、以单数名词或代词,动词不定式短语、动名词短语或从句作主语时,谓语动词要用单数,主语为复数时,谓语用复数,如,

To work hard is necessary for a student.

(2)、用and或both……and连接的并列主语,谓语动词用复数,如,

Both he and I are right.

但并列主语如果指的是同一人,同一事物或同一概念,谓语动词用单数,如, His teacher and friend is a beautiful girl.

(3)、主语是单数时,尽管后面跟有as well as, but ,except, besides, with ,along with, together with, like等,谓语动词仍用单数,如,

The teacher as well as his students is excited.

(4)、某些不定代词,如做主语,谓语动词要用单数,如:Everyone has a book.

(5)、一些只有复数形式的名词,如people, cattle, clothes等作主语时,谓语动词要用复数,如,A lot of people are dancing outside.

2、意义上一致

(1)、表时间、距离、价格、度量衡等的名词作主语时,谓语动词通常用单数,如,

Twenty years is not a long time.

(2)、表示总称意义的名词public, police, cattle, clothes等作主语时,谓语动词用复数,如,

People are talking about the accident.

(3)、有些集合名词,如family, team等作主语,如作为一个整体看待,谓语动词用单数,如指其中每个成员,则用复数,如,

My family is a big one.

My family are watching TV.

3、邻近一致

用连词or, either……or, neither……nor, whether……or, not only…but also,等连接的并列主语,如果一个是单数,一个是复数,则谓语动词按就近一致原则,与最靠近它的主语一致,如,

Either you or I am mad.

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